In the Turkish judicial system, together with an amendment introduced in July 2016, civil courts have been established in three degrees: first instance courts, regional courts of appeal and the Court of Appeals. The regional courts of appeal that have been integrated into the civil court system are designed as a second-tier court to review objections to judgments of the first instance courts. Proceedings in the Turkish judicial system begin with the submission of the lawsuit petition to the court. In accordance with the Code of Civil Procedure, there are three phases, after the stages of bringing a lawsuit and exchanging of petitions: the preliminary examination phase, the investigation phase and the judgment phase. he parties shall be bound by the periods determined by the law.
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